Learning from Behavioural Changes That Fail: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
The behavioural change enterprise disproportionately focuses on promoting successes at the expense of examining the failures of behavioural change interventions. We review the literature across different fields through a causal explanatory approach to identify structural relations that impede (or promote) the success of interventions. Based on this analysis we present a taxonomy of failures of behavioural change that catalogues different types of failures and backfiring effects. Our analyses and classification offer guidance for practitioners and researchers alike, and provide critical insights for establishing a more robust foundation for evidence-based policy. Behavioural change techniques are currently used by many global organisations and public institutions. The amassing evidence base is used to answer practical and scientific questions regarding what cognitive, affective, and environment factors lead to successful behavioural change in the laboratory and in the field. In this piece we show that there is also value to examining interventions that inadvertently fail in achieving their desired behavioural change (e.g., backfiring effects). We identify the underlying causal pathways that characterise different types of failure, and show how a taxonomy of causal interactions that result in failure exposes new insights that can advance theory and practice.
We Analyzed 2,810 Profiles to Calculate Facebook Engagement Rate
Just-in-Time Adaptive Interventions and Adaptive Interventions – The Methodology Center
How to Analyze Instagram Stories: 7 Metrics to Track : Social Media Examiner
Facilitation Guide for an Integrated Evaluation Methodology: Most Significant Change and PhotoVoice | Health Social Change and Behaviour Change Network
Home | Better Evaluation
We are a global collaboration aimed at improving evaluation practice and theory through co-creation, curation, and sharing information.
47+ Logic Model Templates – Free Word, PDF Documents
theory of change
2020-06-01 - The UX Research You’ll Need to Confidently Choose Your UX Metrics
A Simple Framework for Testing Your Social Media Ideas (+ 87 Ideas)
Evaluate Impact – Integrated SBCC Programs
Are We There Yet? A Communications Evaluation Guide
22 Tips for Building Meaningful Social Media Dashboards from All Networks | Databox Blog
Evaluating digital health products - GOV.UK
Costing and Economic Evaluation | Breakthrough ACTION and RESEARCH
Currently Available Costing and Economic Evaluation Products The Business Case for Investing in Social and Behavior Change (report) new Guidelines for Costing Social and Behavior Change Interventions (report) new The Added Value of Costing Social and Behavior Change Interventions (brief) new Social and Behavior Change Business Case and Costing Webinar Generating Evidence to Inform Integrated Social and Behavior Change Programming in Nigeria Making the Business Case for Social and Behavior Change Programming (activity brief)
The Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT) and User’s Guide | Agency for Health Research and Quality
The Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT) is a systematic method to evaluate and compare the understandability and actionability of patient education materials. It is designed as a guide to help determine whether patients will be able to understand and act on information. Separate tools are available for use with print and audiovisual materials.
JFR - Understanding Health Behavior Technology Engagement: Pathway to Measuring Digital Behavior Change Interventions | Cole-Lewis | JMIR Formative Research
5 Ways to Measure Your Instagram Marketing Results : Social Media Examiner
How effective is nudging? A quantitative review on the effect sizes and limits of empirical nudging studies - ScienceDirect
Compilation of Social Marketing Evidence of Effectiveness - CEPSM
Evaluating Effect Size in Psychological Research: Sense and Nonsense - David C. Funder, Daniel J. Ozer, 2019
Daniel J. O’Keefe PUBLICATIONS AND PAPERS
research on health comm messaging effects
Message Pretesting Using Perceived Persuasiveness Measures: Reconsidering the Correlational Evidence: Communication Methods and Measures: Vol 0, No 0
Condom Social Marketing Effects in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review Update, 1990 to 2019. - PubMed - NCBI
The 2012 review found 6 studies (combined N = 23 048). In a meta-analysis, the pooled odds ratio for condom use was 2.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-2.84) for the most recent sexual encounter and 2.10 (95% CI: 1.51-2.91) for a composite of all condom use outcomes. Studies had significant methodological limitations. Of 518 possible new citations identified in the update, no new articles met our inclusion criteria.
North America Evaluation Toolkit | J-PAL North America Evaluation Toolkit
When and why defaults influence decisions: a meta-analysis of default effects | Behavioural Public Policy | Cambridge Core
When people make decisions with a pre-selected choice option – a ‘default’ – they are more likely to select that option. Because defaults are easy to implement, they constitute one of the most widely employed tools in the choice architecture toolbox. However, to decide when defaults should be used instead of other choice architecture tools, policy-makers must know how effective defaults are and when and why their effectiveness varies. To answer these questions, we conduct a literature search and meta-analysis of the 58 default studies (pooled n = 73,675) that fit our criteria. While our analysis reveals a considerable influence of defaults (d = 0.68, 95% confidence interval = 0.53–0.83), we also discover substantial variation: the majority of default studies find positive effects, but several do not find a significant effect, and two even demonstrate negative effects. To explain this variability, we draw on existing theoretical frameworks to examine the drivers of disparity in effectiveness. Our analysis reveals two factors that partially account for the variability in defaults’ effectiveness. First, we find that defaults in consumer domains are more effective and in environmental domains are less effective. Second, we find that defaults are more effective when they operate through endorsement (defaults that are seen as conveying what the choice architect thinks the decision-maker should do) or endowment (defaults that are seen as reflecting the status quo). We end with a discussion of possible directions for a future research program on defaults, including potential additional moderators, and implications for policy-makers interested in the implementation and evaluation of defaults.
Social media analytics: A practical guidebook for journalists and other media professionals | Publications | DW Akademie | DW | 17.07.2019
This guidebook helps media professionals of small media houses develop a better understanding of how to use data for improving their social media performance. Also includes worksheets and templates.
Social and Behavior Change Monitoring Guidance | Breakthrough ACTION and RESEARCH
Breakthrough ACTION has distilled guidance on social and behavior change (SBC) monitoring methods into a collection of technical notes. Each note provides an overview of a monitoring method that may be used for SBC programs along with a description of when to use the method and its strengths and weaknesses.
Investment in Social Marketing Campaign to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Associated with Mental Illness Yields Positive Economic Benefits to California
Based on benefit-cost analysis, increased productivity and employment may have substantial economic benefits over several decades: $1,251 to the state as a whole for each $1 invested in the SDR social marketing campaign. $36 in benefits to the state government for each $1 invested.
Study identifies the best healthy eating nudges | EurekAlert! Science News
In a meta-analysis of real-life experiments drawn from food science, nutrition, health economics, marketing and psychology, the authors find that behavioural nudges - facilitating action rather than providing knowledge or inducing feelings - can reduce daily energy intake by up to 209 kcal, the same number of calories as in 21 cubes of sugar.
Increasing Vaccination: Putting Psychological Science Into Action
***Psychology offers three general propositions for understanding and intervening to increase uptake where vaccines are available and affordable. The first proposition is that thoughts and feelings can motivate getting vaccinated. Hundreds of studies have shown that risk beliefs and anticipated regret about infectious disease correlate reliably with getting vaccinated; low confidence in vaccine effectiveness and concern about safety correlate reliably with not getting vaccinated. We were surprised to find that few randomized trials have successfully changed what people think and feel about vaccines, and those few that succeeded were minimally effective in increasing uptake. The second proposition is that social processes can motivate getting vaccinated. Substantial research has shown that social norms are associated with vaccination, but few interventions examined whether normative messages increase vaccination uptake. Many experimental studies have relied on hypothetical scenarios to demonstrate that altruism and free riding (i.e., taking advantage of the protection provided by others) can affect intended behavior, but few randomized trials have tested strategies to change social processes to increase vaccination uptake. The third proposition is that interventions can facilitate vaccination directly by leveraging, but not trying to change, what people think and feel. These interventions are by far the most plentiful and effective in the literature. To increase vaccine uptake, these interventions build on existing favorable intentions by facilitating action (through reminders, prompts, and primes) and reducing barriers (through logistics and healthy defaults); these interventions also shape behavior (through incentives, sanctions, and requirements). Although identification of principles for changing thoughts and feelings to motivate vaccination is a work in progress, psychological principles can now inform the design of systems and policies to directly facilitate action.
Understanding how and why people change - Journal of Marketing Management
We applied a Hidden Markov Model* (see Figure 1) to examine how and why behaviours did or did not change. The longitudinal repeated measure design meant we knew about food waste behaviour at two points (the amount of food wasted before and after the program), changes in the amount of food wasted reported over time for each household (more or less food wasted) and other factors (e.g. self-efficacy). By using a new method we could extend our understanding beyond the overall effect (households in the Waste Not Want Not program group wasted less food after participating when compared to the control group).
Increasing immunization compliance among schools and day care centers: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial | Journal of Behavioral Public Administration
The results suggest that there was no significant difference in compliance rates between treatment and control schools six months post-treatment. To our knowledge, it is the first randomized controlled trial evaluating the use of descriptive social norms in increasing immunization compliance rates in a school-based setting. In addition, it serves as an example of embedding a behaviorally-informed experiment in a government program utilizing high-quality administrative data.
'13 Reasons Why' Creator Refutes Studies Linking Netflix Hit to Suicide Increase (Guest Column) | Hollywood Reporter
Design and statistical considerations in the evaluation of digital behaviour change interventions | UCL CBC Digi-Hub Blog
Mass media to communicate public health messages in six health topic areas: a systematic review and other reviews of the evidence
OSF | Vuilleme 2018 - The effects of comics, as measured in randomized controlled trials a rapid review.pdf
NetworkWeaver - Weaving Smart Networks
resources for mapping, assessing and weaving networks
'13 Reasons Why’ Release Was Linked To An Increase In Suicides Among Teens, & Here’s What You Should Know
The Behavioural Insights Team Annual Report 2017-18
This report is a summary of the work of the Behavioural Insights Team and its partners from September 2017 to November 2018. It includes highlights from our six offices around the world – in London, Manchester, New York, Singapore, Sydney and Wellington. We also cover our growing portfolio of BI Ventures, products that draw on behavioural insights to make positive social impact.
The effectiveness of social marketing in global health: a systematic review | Health Policy and Planning | Oxford Academic
The Extended Transportation-Imagery Model: A Meta-Analysis of the Antecedents and Consequences of Consumers’ Narrative Transportation by Tom van Laer, Ko de Ruyter, Luca M. Visconti, Martin Wetzels :: SSRN
tories, and their ability to transport their audience, constitute a central part of human life and consumption experience. Integrating previous literature derived from fields as diverse as anthropology, marketing, psychology, communication, consumer, and literary studies, this article offers a review of two decades’ worth of research on narrative transportation, the phenomenon in which consumers mentally enter a world that a story evokes. Despite the relevance of narrative transportation for storytelling and narrative persuasion, extant contributions seem to lack systematization. The authors conceive the extended transportation-imagery model (ETIM), which provides not only a comprehensive model that includes the antecedents and consequences of narrative transportation but also a multidisciplinary framework in which cognitive psychology and consumer culture theory cross-fertilize this field of inquiry. The authors test the model using a quantitative meta-analysis of 132 effect sizes of narrative transportation from 76 published and unpublished articles and identify fruitful directions for further research.
Changing health-promoting behaviours through narrative interventions: A systematic review - Marie-Josée Perrier, Kathleen A Martin Ginis, 2018
The objective of this review was to summarize the literature supporting narrative interventions that target health-promoting behaviours. Eligible articles were English-language peer-reviewed studies that quantitatively reported the results of a narrative intervention targeting health-promoting behaviours or theoretical determinants of behaviour. Five public health and psychology databases were searched. A total of 52 studies met inclusion criteria. In all, 14 studies found positive changes in health-promoting behaviours after exposure to a narrative intervention. The results for the changes in theoretical determinants were mixed. While narrative appears to be a promising intervention strategy, more research is needed to determine how and when to use these interventions.
Measuring Program Outcomes: A Practical Approach - United Way of America
Guide to outcome evaluation and development of logic models
Evaluation of Protection in Humanitarian Action
When and why defaults influence decisions: a meta-analysis of default effects
Habit Change Literature Review - Duke University
Reality Check: Are public health campaigns working? - BBC News
Three of the best-known health messages are eating five portions a day of fruit and vegetables, getting 150 minutes of exercise a week and quitting smoking. But what evidence is there that these have worked?
Nudge Fudge Leaves Policy Makers in the Dark | Psychology Today
Our work published this week analyses all 111 cases studies of behavioral techniques used by governments compiled by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Our analysis demonstrates that none of the techniques used have scientific proven effectiveness.
Environmental Sustainability and Behavioral Science: Meta-Analysis of Proenvironmental Behavior Experiments - Richard Osbaldiston, John Paul Schott, 2012
To provide practitioners with useful information about how to promote proenvironmental behavior (PEB), a meta-analysis was performed on 87 published reports containing 253 experimental treatments that measured an observed, not self-reported, behavioral outcome. Most studies combined multiple treatments, and this confounding precluded definitive conclusions about which individual treatments are most effective. Treatments that included cognitive dissonance, goal setting, social modeling, and prompts provided the overall largest effect sizes (Hedge’s g > 0.60).