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[https://sites.google.com/view/behavioralpublic/home] - - public:weinreich
academia, behavior_change, design, policy - 4 | id:269540 -

This is the website for a PhD-level mini-course in behavioral public economics developed by Hunt Allcott and Dmitry Taubinsky. Through the lens of neoclassical economics, the role of government is to provide public goods, correct externalities, provide information, and address other market failures. In practice, however, some public policies are motivated by the concern that people do not act in their own best interest. For example, many countries ban drugs, tax cigarettes, alcohol, and sugary drinks, or subsidize retirement savings and energy-efficient appliances, all largely on the grounds that consumers would be better off consuming more or less than they do. Standard approaches to policy analysis rely on revealed preference assumptions to measure an agent’s welfare. Under these assumptions, the direct effect of any policy that changes choices is to reduce consumer welfare. However, empirical evidence from behavioral economics in a variety of domains suggests that people sometimes do make systematic mistakes. The field of behavioral public economics extends the theoretical and empirical tools of public economics to incorporate the possibility of consumer mistakes into questions about policy evaluation and design. This is a PhD-level mini-course in behavioral public economics. In this course, we’ll consider questions like the following: How can we do welfare analysis if choice does not necessarily identify utility? How do we empirically measure consumer biases? How do we set socially optimal policies in settings when consumers may not act in their own best interest? Nudges change behavior at low cost. Does that mean they are a good idea? What are the costs and benefits of tax complexity?

[https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/tech-happy-life/201910/how-do-you-win-argument] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, health_communication, strategy - 3 | id:267094 -

Well, if we want to sway other people to our “correct“ vision of things, we are most likely to do that by having a strong relationship with them. Ironically, it is through carefully and compassionately listening to others that we are more likely to sway their views.

[https://www.nap.edu/catalog/24790/the-value-of-social-behavioral-and-economic-sciences-to-national-priorities] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, policy, theory - 3 | id:266973 -

Nearly every major challenge the United States faces—from alleviating unemployment to protecting itself from terrorism—requires understanding the causes and consequences of people’s behavior. Even societal challenges that at first glance appear to be issues only of medicine or engineering or computer science have social and behavioral components. Having a fundamental understanding of how people and societies behave, why they respond the way they do, what they find important, what they believe or value, and what and how they think about others is critical for the country’s well-being in today’s shrinking global world. The diverse disciplines of the social, behavioral, and economic (SBE) sciences ―anthropology, archaeology, demography, economics, geography, linguistics, neuroscience, political science, psychology, sociology, and statistics―all produce fundamental knowledge, methods, and tools that provide a greater understanding of people and how they live.

[https://bbiasblog.wordpress.com/2017/07/01/attractive-names-of-the-meals-for-healthier-diets-of-the-children/] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, branding, health_communication, obesity, youth - 5 | id:266972 -

Discarding classical solutions such as information campaigns, it offers a much simpler alternative: make the healthy options more tempting. How? By changing their names. Several research teams in the US have tried this strategy in various school canteens and they found that making the names “seductive”, catchy or funny can induce children to eat healthier.

[https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/when-behavior-change-interventions-trigger-unintended-dr-agnis-stibe/?trk=v-feed] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, ethics - 2 | id:266964 -

In this paper, we discussed multiple ways how behavior change interventions can backfire. We provided a framework to help facilitate the discussion of this topic, and created tools to aid academics in the study of this realm, and support practitioners to remain mindful of the potential risks.

[https://www.psychologicalscience.org/news/motr/promising-behavioral-intervention-helps-cut-idling-car-engines.html] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, sample_campaigns, social_norms - 3 | id:266961 -

Directing drivers to “think of themselves” successfully led to far more drivers switching off their idling engines: More drivers switched off their engines in the private self-focused condition (51%) compared with the baseline condition (20%). “The odds ratios revealed that drivers were 1.83 times more likely to switch off their engines in the instructive watching eyes condition, and 4.82 times more likely in the private self-focus condition than in the baseline condition,” Meleady and colleagues write.

[https://customer.io/blog/triggered-engagement-email-campaigns/] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, mobile, online_marketing, technology - 4 | id:266958 -

When the growth team took a step back, they realized it wasn’t enough to trigger just any notification. They needed to “show the right things to users at the right time — creating ‘aha moments’” where the user experienced the product’s core value. Rather than indiscriminately bombard the user with notifications, they concluded that they needed to be “really thoughtful about which messages to send which users” and focus “more of [their] resources on engaging users that were likely to churn.” Taking a page from Facebook, here are 5 kinds of engagement messages that work to activate, retain, and grow customers. Highly personal and targeted, these emails show off your product’s core value, ferry your users to their “aha moments”, and get people engaging with your product and brand again and again.

[https://behavioralscientist.org/busting-misbeliefs-to-improve-womens-well-being/] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, HIV_AIDS, sample_campaigns, social_norms - 4 | id:266742 -

Two examples of campaigns tackling misbeliefs - one addressing misperceptions of the likelihood of an event (girls contracting HIV in South Africa) and one addressing misperceptions of social norms (women working outside the home in Saudi Arabia):

[https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/2749761] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, design, gaming, obesity - 4 | id:266739 -

In this randomized clinical trial of 602 overweight and obese adults from 40 states across the United States, gamification interventions with support, collaboration, and competition significantly increased physical activity compared with the control group during the 24-week intervention. The competition arm had the greatest increase in physical activity from baseline during the intervention; during the 12-week follow-up, physical activity was lower in all arms, but remained significantly greater in the competition arm than in the control arm.

[https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bjhp.12369] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, theory - 2 | id:266660 -

A habit is not necessarily a single action. Many behaviors that you may want to turn into habits have sub-actions involved in either instigating or executing the behavior. So there are a number of possible entry points to intervene to support the development of that habit.

[https://medium.com/busara-center-blog/addressing-gender-based-violence-norms-and-behaviors-aa1ce91c1f8c] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, campaign_effects, entertainment_education, theory - 4 | id:266659 -

However, when the ZCCP video was combined with the social nudge : “Many people in your community have also watched this video,’’ the video shifted the perception of social norms towards less acceptance of GBV i.e. people were more likely to believe that their community found GBV unacceptable and more likely to think that their community thought GBV was a serious issue.

[https://keeptothepath.com/2019/05/23/crafting-environmental-messages-to-affect-social-change/] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, environment, health_communication - 3 | id:266626 -

Messages focused on the economic costs or negative impacts to individuals were more effective than motivational messaging in gaining support from the public and reducing the psychological distance of an environmental issue.

[https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/we-should-listen-when-people-tell-us-find-chicken-box-claire-mcalpine/] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, ethics, social_marketing - 3 | id:266564 -

There are 6 implications I've drawn from this initial analysis: Authentic engagement - embed authentic engagement and feedback processes all through the campaign development journey Behaviour change levers audit - identify and review all of the behaviour change levers, not just those where communications can make a difference Medium, message, messenger - critically analyse the relationship between these for each creative execution Authentic inclusion - ensure diversity is embedded into your teams and planning processes and that this inclusion is authentic and supportive The constraints of comms - recognise circumstances where communications are not the most effective behaviour change and/or confidence building lever Remember that communications don't take place in a vacuum - reflect on how communications can have an impact on the system outside of comms touchpoints

[https://behavioralscientist.org/defaults-are-not-the-same-by-default/] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, design, environment, theory - 4 | id:266531 -

To do so, we drew on a theoretical framework which highlights that defaults operate through three channels: first, defaults work because they reflect an implicit endorsement from the choice architect—your company’s HR department, your city’s policy office, your credit card company, your child’s school. Second, defaults work because staying with the defaulted choice is easier than switching away from it. Third, defaults work because they endow decision makers with an option, meaning they’re less likely to want to give it up, now that it’s theirs. As a result, we hypothesized that default designs that trigger more of these channels (also called the three Es: endorsement, ease, and endowment) would be more effective. In our analysis, we find partial support for this idea. That is, we find that studies that were designed to trigger endorsement (defaults that are seen as conveying what the choice architect thinks the decision maker should do) or endowment (defaults that are seen as reflecting the status quo) were more likely to be effective. In addition, we find that defaults in consumer domains tend to be more effective, and that defaults in pro-environmental domains (such as green energy defaults) tend to be less effective.

[https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JSOCM-04-2017-0027/full/html] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, policy, social_marketing, theory - 4 | id:266502 -

This commentary argues that social marketing and the application of behavioural sciences to policy constitute two converging paths towards better policies. It highlights points of convergence and divergence between both disciplines and the potential benefits of further embedding social marketing principles and methods within the recent trend of applying behavioural sciences to policy.

[https://pioneerreporter.com/depression-drugs-sales-upsurge-major-players-contributing-heavily-towards-market-growth-reports-fact-mr-study/?utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, mental_health, mobile - 3 | id:266046 -

demand for depression drugs is also witnessing a decline as end-users have more coping options at their disposal. The huge popularity of mental health apps, such as Headspace, Calm, Moodnotes, Pacifica, and SuperBetter has given patients more control over how they manage depression.

[https://www.pnas.org/content/116/30/14808] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, strategy - 2 | id:266043 -

Common sense suggests that people struggling to achieve their goals benefit from receiving motivational advice. What if the reverse is true? In a preregistered field experiment, we tested whether giving motivational advice raises academic achievement for the advisor. We randomly assigned n = 1,982 high school students to a treatment condition, in which they gave motivational advice (e.g., how to stop procrastinating) to younger students, or to a control condition. Advice givers earned higher report card grades in both math and a self-selected target class over an academic quarter. This psychologically wise advice-giving nudge, which has relevance for policy and practice, suggests a valuable approach to improving achievement: one that puts people in a position to give.

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