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[https://www.cell.com/trends/cognitive-sciences/fulltext/S1364-6613(20)30224-2] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, campaign_effects, evaluation, theory - 4 | id:436909 -

The behavioural change enterprise disproportionately focuses on promoting successes at the expense of examining the failures of behavioural change interventions. We review the literature across different fields through a causal explanatory approach to identify structural relations that impede (or promote) the success of interventions. Based on this analysis we present a taxonomy of failures of behavioural change that catalogues different types of failures and backfiring effects. Our analyses and classification offer guidance for practitioners and researchers alike, and provide critical insights for establishing a more robust foundation for evidence-based policy. Behavioural change techniques are currently used by many global organisations and public institutions. The amassing evidence base is used to answer practical and scientific questions regarding what cognitive, affective, and environment factors lead to successful behavioural change in the laboratory and in the field. In this piece we show that there is also value to examining interventions that inadvertently fail in achieving their desired behavioural change (e.g., backfiring effects). We identify the underlying causal pathways that characterise different types of failure, and show how a taxonomy of causal interactions that result in failure exposes new insights that can advance theory and practice.

[https://www.bmj.com/content/367/bmj.l6542] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, campaign_effects - 2 | id:272046 -

Many participants were perfectly aware of alternative services. But the patients’ perception was that such services were overstretched or hard to access. In a structured survey of 25 departments, emergency staff shared similar perceptions. Perhaps what seems to be inappropriate or avoidable use is actually an active and semi-informed choice.

[https://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2019/11/18/the-benefits-and-risks-of-public-awareness-campaigns-world-antibiotic-awareness-week-in-context/] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, campaign_effects, health_communication - 3 | id:272021 -

the report sits uncomfortably with evidence that information needs vary across contexts; a 2018 review of awareness raising interventions across different target populations found success varied markedly. [11] The same message that will draw attention from policy makers may not resonate with the public and care providers around the world.

[https://www.nature.com/articles/s41893-019-0384-1.epdf?author_access_token=njVqmygd_g1KxYf4M0-RJ9RgN0jAjWel9jnR3ZoTv0MWluUZTk_2KWmnE5f8I6FGgR--ouuiEbShcohwnP_gPhSbx8yZouSMRv-IVTBRPLHgZUoAkSSJ7pXQ68Hb0uqRZGu3jAgq3gxVEx8zvKzBRA%3D%3D] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, campaign_effects, environment, social_marketing, social_norms - 5 | id:271299 -

You can either have rapid uptake OR large-scale adoption, but generally you don't find both together in these types of initiatives.

[https://medium.com/busara-center-blog/addressing-gender-based-violence-norms-and-behaviors-aa1ce91c1f8c] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, campaign_effects, entertainment_education, theory - 4 | id:266659 -

However, when the ZCCP video was combined with the social nudge : “Many people in your community have also watched this video,’’ the video shifted the perception of social norms towards less acceptance of GBV i.e. people were more likely to believe that their community found GBV unacceptable and more likely to think that their community thought GBV was a serious issue.

[https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/behavioural-public-policy/article/when-and-why-defaults-influence-decisions-a-metaanalysis-of-default-effects/67AF6972CFB52698A60B6BD94B70C2C0] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, campaign_effects, design, evaluation - 4 | id:265582 -

When people make decisions with a pre-selected choice option – a ‘default’ – they are more likely to select that option. Because defaults are easy to implement, they constitute one of the most widely employed tools in the choice architecture toolbox. However, to decide when defaults should be used instead of other choice architecture tools, policy-makers must know how effective defaults are and when and why their effectiveness varies. To answer these questions, we conduct a literature search and meta-analysis of the 58 default studies (pooled n = 73,675) that fit our criteria. While our analysis reveals a considerable influence of defaults (d = 0.68, 95% confidence interval = 0.53–0.83), we also discover substantial variation: the majority of default studies find positive effects, but several do not find a significant effect, and two even demonstrate negative effects. To explain this variability, we draw on existing theoretical frameworks to examine the drivers of disparity in effectiveness. Our analysis reveals two factors that partially account for the variability in defaults’ effectiveness. First, we find that defaults in consumer domains are more effective and in environmental domains are less effective. Second, we find that defaults are more effective when they operate through endorsement (defaults that are seen as conveying what the choice architect thinks the decision-maker should do) or endowment (defaults that are seen as reflecting the status quo). We end with a discussion of possible directions for a future research program on defaults, including potential additional moderators, and implications for policy-makers interested in the implementation and evaluation of defaults.

[https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-07/i-sit070919.php] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, campaign_effects, design, evaluation, nutrition, obesity, theory - 7 | id:264245 -

In a meta-analysis of real-life experiments drawn from food science, nutrition, health economics, marketing and psychology, the authors find that behavioural nudges - facilitating action rather than providing knowledge or inducing feelings - can reduce daily energy intake by up to 209 kcal, the same number of calories as in 21 cubes of sugar.

[https://www.jmmnews.com/understanding-how-and-why-people-change/] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, campaign_effects, evaluation, quantitative, research, social_marketing, theory - 7 | id:254322 -

We applied a Hidden Markov Model* (see Figure 1) to examine how and why behaviours did or did not change. The longitudinal repeated measure design meant we knew about food waste behaviour at two points (the amount of food wasted before and after the program), changes in the amount of food wasted reported over time for each household (more or less food wasted) and other factors (e.g. self-efficacy). By using a new method we could extend our understanding beyond the overall effect (households in the Waste Not Want Not program group wasted less food after participating when compared to the control group).

[https://www.bi.team/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Annual-update-report-BIT-2017-2018.pdf] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, campaign_effects, evaluation, policy - 4 | id:245231 -

This report is a summary of the work of the Behavioural Insights Team and its partners from September 2017 to November 2018. It includes highlights from our six offices around the world – in London, Manchester, New York, Singapore, Sydney and Wellington. We also cover our growing portfolio of BI Ventures, products that draw on behavioural insights to make positive social impact.

[https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1359105316656243] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, campaign_effects, entertainment_education, evaluation, storytelling - 5 | id:244103 -

The objective of this review was to summarize the literature supporting narrative interventions that target health-promoting behaviours. Eligible articles were English-language peer-reviewed studies that quantitatively reported the results of a narrative intervention targeting health-promoting behaviours or theoretical determinants of behaviour. Five public health and psychology databases were searched. A total of 52 studies met inclusion criteria. In all, 14 studies found positive changes in health-promoting behaviours after exposure to a narrative intervention. The results for the changes in theoretical determinants were mixed. While narrative appears to be a promising intervention strategy, more research is needed to determine how and when to use these interventions.

[https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/blog/future-minded/201810/nudge-fudge-leaves-policy-makers-in-the-dark] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, campaign_effects, design, evaluation, government, policy - 6 | id:187321 -

Our work published this week analyses all 111 cases studies of behavioral techniques used by governments compiled by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Our analysis demonstrates that none of the techniques used have scientific proven effectiveness.

[http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0013916511402673] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, campaign_effects, environment, evaluation - 4 | id:186975 -

To provide practitioners with useful information about how to promote proenvironmental behavior (PEB), a meta-analysis was performed on 87 published reports containing 253 experimental treatments that measured an observed, not self-reported, behavioral outcome. Most studies combined multiple treatments, and this confounding precluded definitive conclusions about which individual treatments are most effective. Treatments that included cognitive dissonance, goal setting, social modeling, and prompts provided the overall largest effect sizes (Hedge’s g > 0.60).

[http://yukaichou.com/gamification-examples/gamification-stats-figures/?utm_content=buffera1233&utm_medium=social&utm_source=linkedin.com&utm_campaign=buffer] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, campaign_effects, evaluation, gaming, sample_campaigns - 5 | id:76189 -

Lifestyle Gamification Case Stats and Figures OPower: reduced measurable energy consumption by over $100M Aetna: increased daily healthy activities by 50% with an average engagement of 14 minutes on the site ClinicalAdvisor.com: embedded a social platform that improved user submission by 300%, comments by 400%, and Slideshow Visualizations by 53% Bottle Bank Arcade: gamified bottle bank was used 50 times more than conventional bottle bank. The World’s Deepest Bin: 132% more trash collected compared to conventional bin Piano Stairs: 66% more of people use the stairs, if they can produce music with it Speed Camera Lottery: a lottery system that causes a 22% reduction of driving speed Toilette Seat: 44% of increase in lifting the toilet seat when urinating Nike: used gamified feedback to drive over 5,000,000 users to beat their personal fitness goals every day of the year Recycle Bank grew a community of 4 million members by providing a gamified recycling platform. Chevrolet Volt: uses a green/amber indicator to give drivers visual feedback of their driving style and reduced the number of people exceeding the speed limit by 53%

[http://www.comminit.com/evidencesummit/category/sites/global/evidence-summit] - - public:weinreich
behavior_change, campaign_effects, evaluation, sample_campaigns, social_change, social_marketing - 6 | id:77231 -

Supporting USAID's “renewed emphasis on the application of research and evaluation to inform strategic thinking about development for low- and middle-income countries with a focus on “achieving the social and behavior changes needed to end preventable child deaths and improve under five development“. All 1,313 papers identified can be accessed, searched and filtered to your interests

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