Learning from Behavioural Changes That Fail: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
The behavioural change enterprise disproportionately focuses on promoting successes at the expense of examining the failures of behavioural change interventions. We review the literature across different fields through a causal explanatory approach to identify structural relations that impede (or promote) the success of interventions. Based on this analysis we present a taxonomy of failures of behavioural change that catalogues different types of failures and backfiring effects. Our analyses and classification offer guidance for practitioners and researchers alike, and provide critical insights for establishing a more robust foundation for evidence-based policy. Behavioural change techniques are currently used by many global organisations and public institutions. The amassing evidence base is used to answer practical and scientific questions regarding what cognitive, affective, and environment factors lead to successful behavioural change in the laboratory and in the field. In this piece we show that there is also value to examining interventions that inadvertently fail in achieving their desired behavioural change (e.g., backfiring effects). We identify the underlying causal pathways that characterise different types of failure, and show how a taxonomy of causal interactions that result in failure exposes new insights that can advance theory and practice.
Five Years Later: Awareness Of New York City's Calorie Labels Declined, With No Changes In Calories Purchased - PubMed
Tweet for Behavior Change: Using Social Media for the Dissemination of Public Health Messages
Habit Change Literature Review - Center for Advanced Hindsight
After Uber arrives, heavy drinking increases - Daily chart
Ride-hailing apps have allowed more binging—and increased demand for bartenders
David Oliver: Do public campaigns relieve pressure on emergency departments? | The BMJ
Many participants were perfectly aware of alternative services. But the patients’ perception was that such services were overstretched or hard to access. In a structured survey of 25 departments, emergency staff shared similar perceptions. Perhaps what seems to be inappropriate or avoidable use is actually an active and semi-informed choice.
The benefits and risks of public awareness campaigns: World Antibiotic Awareness Week in context - The BMJ
the report sits uncomfortably with evidence that information needs vary across contexts; a 2018 review of awareness raising interventions across different target populations found success varied markedly.  The same message that will draw attention from policy makers may not resonate with the public and care providers around the world.
How conservation initiatives go to scale | Nature Sustainability
You can either have rapid uptake OR large-scale adoption, but generally you don't find both together in these types of initiatives.
How effective is nudging? A quantitative review on the effect sizes and limits of empirical nudging studies - ScienceDirect
Addressing gender-based violence norms and behaviors: Using social signalling and behavioral science
However, when the ZCCP video was combined with the social nudge : “Many people in your community have also watched this video,’’ the video shifted the perception of social norms towards less acceptance of GBV i.e. people were more likely to believe that their community found GBV unacceptable and more likely to think that their community thought GBV was a serious issue.
Erez Yoeli on Twitter: “Together with @keheala, we developed and tested a mobile phone platform to support TB patients. It reduced unsuccessful TB treatment by 68%. Out in @NEJM today. 1/X https://t.co/h5n002LnRA“ / Twitter
One Simple Change Cut Unnecessary Imaging for Cancer Patients in Half – PR News
When and why defaults influence decisions: a meta-analysis of default effects | Behavioural Public Policy | Cambridge Core
When people make decisions with a pre-selected choice option – a ‘default’ – they are more likely to select that option. Because defaults are easy to implement, they constitute one of the most widely employed tools in the choice architecture toolbox. However, to decide when defaults should be used instead of other choice architecture tools, policy-makers must know how effective defaults are and when and why their effectiveness varies. To answer these questions, we conduct a literature search and meta-analysis of the 58 default studies (pooled n = 73,675) that fit our criteria. While our analysis reveals a considerable influence of defaults (d = 0.68, 95% confidence interval = 0.53–0.83), we also discover substantial variation: the majority of default studies find positive effects, but several do not find a significant effect, and two even demonstrate negative effects. To explain this variability, we draw on existing theoretical frameworks to examine the drivers of disparity in effectiveness. Our analysis reveals two factors that partially account for the variability in defaults’ effectiveness. First, we find that defaults in consumer domains are more effective and in environmental domains are less effective. Second, we find that defaults are more effective when they operate through endorsement (defaults that are seen as conveying what the choice architect thinks the decision-maker should do) or endowment (defaults that are seen as reflecting the status quo). We end with a discussion of possible directions for a future research program on defaults, including potential additional moderators, and implications for policy-makers interested in the implementation and evaluation of defaults.
Study identifies the best healthy eating nudges | EurekAlert! Science News
In a meta-analysis of real-life experiments drawn from food science, nutrition, health economics, marketing and psychology, the authors find that behavioural nudges - facilitating action rather than providing knowledge or inducing feelings - can reduce daily energy intake by up to 209 kcal, the same number of calories as in 21 cubes of sugar.
Understanding how and why people change - Journal of Marketing Management
We applied a Hidden Markov Model* (see Figure 1) to examine how and why behaviours did or did not change. The longitudinal repeated measure design meant we knew about food waste behaviour at two points (the amount of food wasted before and after the program), changes in the amount of food wasted reported over time for each household (more or less food wasted) and other factors (e.g. self-efficacy). By using a new method we could extend our understanding beyond the overall effect (households in the Waste Not Want Not program group wasted less food after participating when compared to the control group).
'13 Reasons Why' Creator Refutes Studies Linking Netflix Hit to Suicide Increase (Guest Column) | Hollywood Reporter
Mass media to communicate public health messages in six health topic areas: a systematic review and other reviews of the evidence
'13 Reasons Why’ Release Was Linked To An Increase In Suicides Among Teens, & Here’s What You Should Know
The Behavioural Insights Team Annual Report 2017-18
This report is a summary of the work of the Behavioural Insights Team and its partners from September 2017 to November 2018. It includes highlights from our six offices around the world – in London, Manchester, New York, Singapore, Sydney and Wellington. We also cover our growing portfolio of BI Ventures, products that draw on behavioural insights to make positive social impact.
Changing health-promoting behaviours through narrative interventions: A systematic review - Marie-Josée Perrier, Kathleen A Martin Ginis, 2018
The objective of this review was to summarize the literature supporting narrative interventions that target health-promoting behaviours. Eligible articles were English-language peer-reviewed studies that quantitatively reported the results of a narrative intervention targeting health-promoting behaviours or theoretical determinants of behaviour. Five public health and psychology databases were searched. A total of 52 studies met inclusion criteria. In all, 14 studies found positive changes in health-promoting behaviours after exposure to a narrative intervention. The results for the changes in theoretical determinants were mixed. While narrative appears to be a promising intervention strategy, more research is needed to determine how and when to use these interventions.
When and why defaults influence decisions: a meta-analysis of default effects
Nudge Fudge Leaves Policy Makers in the Dark | Psychology Today
Our work published this week analyses all 111 cases studies of behavioral techniques used by governments compiled by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Our analysis demonstrates that none of the techniques used have scientific proven effectiveness.
Environmental Sustainability and Behavioral Science: Meta-Analysis of Proenvironmental Behavior Experiments - Richard Osbaldiston, John Paul Schott, 2012
To provide practitioners with useful information about how to promote proenvironmental behavior (PEB), a meta-analysis was performed on 87 published reports containing 253 experimental treatments that measured an observed, not self-reported, behavioral outcome. Most studies combined multiple treatments, and this confounding precluded definitive conclusions about which individual treatments are most effective. Treatments that included cognitive dissonance, goal setting, social modeling, and prompts provided the overall largest effect sizes (Hedge’s g > 0.60).
Approaches to promote handwashing and sanitation behaviour change in low- and middle-income countries - The Campbell Collaboration
A Comprehensive List of 90+ Gamification Cases with ROI Stats
Lifestyle Gamification Case Stats and Figures OPower: reduced measurable energy consumption by over $100M Aetna: increased daily healthy activities by 50% with an average engagement of 14 minutes on the site ClinicalAdvisor.com: embedded a social platform that improved user submission by 300%, comments by 400%, and Slideshow Visualizations by 53% Bottle Bank Arcade: gamified bottle bank was used 50 times more than conventional bottle bank. The World’s Deepest Bin: 132% more trash collected compared to conventional bin Piano Stairs: 66% more of people use the stairs, if they can produce music with it Speed Camera Lottery: a lottery system that causes a 22% reduction of driving speed Toilette Seat: 44% of increase in lifting the toilet seat when urinating Nike: used gamified feedback to drive over 5,000,000 users to beat their personal fitness goals every day of the year Recycle Bank grew a community of 4 million members by providing a gamified recycling platform. Chevrolet Volt: uses a green/amber indicator to give drivers visual feedback of their driving style and reduced the number of people exceeding the speed limit by 53%
Efficacy of text messaging-based interventions for health promotion: A meta-analysis
Online Interventions for Social Marketing Health Behavior Change Campaigns: A Meta-Analysis of Psychological Architectures and Adherence Factors
Randomized Controlled Trial of SuperBetter, a Smartphone-Based/Internet-Based Self-Help Tool to Reduce Depressive Symptoms | Abstract
USAID Evidence Summit on Population Level Behavior Change - Impact Evidence
Supporting USAID's “renewed emphasis on the application of research and evaluation to inform strategic thinking about development for low- and middle-income countries with a focus on “achieving the social and behavior changes needed to end preventable child deaths and improve under five development“. All 1,313 papers identified can be accessed, searched and filtered to your interests
What is the Effect of Mass Media on Suicidal Behavior? - YouTube
Proving the impact of media on behaviour change | Health Communication
The influence of social networking sites on health behavior change: a systematic review and meta-analysis -- Laranjo et al. -- Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association
text4baby - Study Shows mHealth Service for Moms is Beneficial
AdNews: Dumb and Dumber (Ways to Die)
SuperBetter: Positive Gaming - Results of randomized trial
As Funding for Anti-Tobacco Ads Fell, So Did Quitting Rate | News - Advertising Age
Meta-Synthesis of Health Behavior Change Meta-Analyses
Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour : The Lancet
In Kansas, Climate Skeptics Embrace Green Energy - Series - NYTimes.com
Propagation Planning: The Awareness Fallacy [Presentation]
Gaming for Good - research shows foster altruistic mindset | Greater Good
Mmmmm-health: Appetizing human health solutions that boost behavior change
Prodding People to Wash Their Hands in Restrooms - NYTimes.com
E-Mail Reminders Can Improve Health Choices, Kaiser Study Finds - iHealthBeat
Social Marketing Strategies for Campus Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems
Higher Education Center for Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drugs